Four Equals One China—Minority China Continued (Part 6 of 7)

May 16, 2010

The Mongol minority and the Manchu both conquered and ruled China for a time. The Mongols were the Yuan Dynasty (1277-1367) and the Manchu were the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). China’s largest expansion took place under the Yuan and the Qing. The Yuan occupied Tibet followed by the Ming Dynasty (1368-1643) and then the Qing.

If you are one of the skeptics who believe Tibetan separatists whom claim China never ruled Tibet, I direct you to the October 1912 issue of “National Geographic Magazine” or “The I.G. In Peking, Letters of Robert Hart, Chinese Maritime Customs, 1868 – 1907” where Sir Robert Hart mentioned Tibet in more than fifty of his letters in two volumes published by Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-44320-9.

Since I wanted to see the original, I bought a copy of the October 1912 issue of National Geographic Magazine on e-bay, and it cost $20 plus shipping.

Go to Four Equals One China: Part 7 or discover China’s 56 minorities


Lloyd Lofthouse is the award-winning author of My Splendid Concubine [3rd edition]. When you love a Chinese woman, you marry her family and culture too. This is the love story Sir Robert Hart did not want the world to discover.

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