Tenth Question [Parfitt]:
What’s your take on Chinese education?
China faces many challenges educating its youth. The Compulsory Education law took effect in 1986. In addition, because urban teachers continue to earn more than their rural counterparts do and because academic standards in the countryside are lower, it remains difficult to recruit teachers for rural areas, so China faces an acute shortage of qualified teachers.
It didn’t help that during Mao’s Cultural Revolution, the education system was gutted and literacy dropped to 20%. However, today, literacy is above 90% and improving.
After Mao’s death in 1976, Deng Xiaoping enacted gradual reforms that included not only the economy but education. One of the first changes was to get rid of Mao’s Little Red Book that inflamed a generation of radical youths during the Cultural Revolution. Today, dogmatic Party slogans have no place in China’s classrooms.
While Chinese education stood still for twenty-seven years under Mao, Western educational science evolved emphasizing critical thinking and problem solving skills over rote learning, and now China is learning those methods and introducing them slowly as teachers are trained.
One component of change sees hundreds of thousands of university students earning degrees in America and other Western nations and then taking that knowledge back to China. In fact, many children of China’s top leaders are attending universities in the West such as Harvard or Stanford.
The first schools to see changes were in Shanghai about 18 years ago, and the results were dramatic when fifteen-year-old Shanghai students took first place in every category in the 2009 international PISA test, which has components that test critical thinking and problem solving skills.
However, China’s central government was quick to announce that the rest of China would take about fifteen to twenty years to catch up to Shanghai.
I understand that over the doorway of classrooms in Shanghai are signs that says something like “there is more than one answers for each question” and the dogmatic methods used for centuries are being phased out as teachers are retrained but change is slow and the challenges many. Teaching an old dog new tricks is not easy.
I taught in Taiwan, where, like China, schooling is test-based, geared toward entrance exams, and bolstered by rote memorization. School days are long (8 to 13 hours), homework received in heaps, and evenings, if free, filled with cram-school classes.
The goal is admission to National Taiwan University, nationally number 1. Globally, it has a Times Higher Education World University Ranking of 115.
In that index’s top 100, China has only 3 entries. Australia has 5, America 52. China’s flagship, Peking University, is ranked 37.
“More than one possible answer,” is great, but I wonder how China can transition to Western education without belittling Confucian principles. I also wonder about returning students, who sometimes find it difficult to assimilate after Western exposure. Returning scientists have said it’s most important to report what superiors want to hear, and that they are powerless to change things. Change requires freedom; freedom is impossible.
Final Word [Lofthouse]:
Most students in collective Confucian cultures have no problems learning from Western educational techniques while surviving the influence of Western values after returning home.
In Singapore, Confucian beliefs are so autocratic, parents face harsh penalties and jail time if a student’s schoolwork suffers. In addition, Singapore students face caning when breaking rules, yet fifteen-year-old students in Singapore placed fifth in the 2009 international PISA test.
In fact, among the top eleven nations that scored significantly above the OECD average in the PISA test, five were cultures influenced by Confucius.
Shanghai-China placed first, South Korea second, Hong Kong-China fourth, Singapore fifth and Japan eighth, while the US placed seventeenth.
In addition, the US may have 52 of the top 100 universities but 62% of foreign students attending US universities are from countries influenced by Confucius, and Doctoral-level institutions, for example, reported an increase of 130 percent, on average, in Chinese students.
Continued on December 8, 2011 in Discussion with Troy Parfitt, the author of “Why China Will Never Rule the World – Travels in the Two Chinas” – Part 12 or return to Part 10.
See Discovering Intellectual Dishonesty – Part 1
Lloyd Lofthouse is the award-winning author of The Concubine Saga. When you love a Chinese woman, you marry her family and culture too. This is the love story Sir Robert Hart did not want the world to discover.
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Worth reading to find out more about how China’s public education system works and is changing to be more “innovative”.
Lessons Americans and Schools All Over The World Can Learn from China [a guest post by Kaitlyn Cole] on Rashid’s Blog [in India]
Quote Mr. Parfitt
“Returning scientists have said it’s most important to report what superiors want to hear, and that they are powerless to change things”
Really? I find this hard to believe. Having come from an academic family with my parent’s friends and my friends having gone back and forth from Canada to China for various jobs (mostly life science and chemistry), this doesn’t fit their experience. I wonder if Mr Parfitt can tell us who he meant by “returning scientists”, ie what jobs they took in China, how long they’ve been in the west etc. Because his argument and attribution sound awfully like what Wikipedia guidelines warn against.
(e.g. “some people”, “experts”, “many”)(e.g. “it is said”)(e.g. “often”, “probably”)
I agree. We have a friend that came to the US, graduated with a PhD in nanotechnology, ended up teaching at a university in the US eventually becoming the department chair. He made some breakthroughs in that science and wrote several books on it. When invited to return to China to teach there too, China allowed him to keep his job in the US while flying back and forth on his own selective schedule to teach classes there too. He has never mentioned what Mr. Parfitt claims happening to him or anyone he knows teaching in China and he has lived in the US long enough to complain if that happened. If it did, I’m sure he would quit the job in China and stay in the US to teach since that job pays more.
Currently he is involved in a third project to launch a small-liberal arts college in Western China modeled after the US higher education system.
In fact, my wife and I know a number of Chinese professors that teach in Chinese universities and none of them have said a word about this type of environment.
It seems Mr. Parfitt suspects the environment of the Cultural Revolution still runs China, but Mao’s slogans were removed from all the schools soon after his death and mainland China has changed dramatically.
It addition, during the Cultural Revolution, children were taught to question authority by denouncing teachers, professors, scientists, doctors, parents, business owners, while this sort of rebellious behavior did not happen in Taiwan where Mr. Parfitt taught ESL for more than a decade.
Correct me if I’m wrong, but didn’t Mr. Parfitt argue earlier in the debate that Confucianism was the same in China as it was in Taiwan—-repressive and rigid. He’s wrong there too. It is my understanding that the practice of Confucianism is stricter in Taiwan and Japan than it is in today’s China.